Egypt and the civilization of Pharaohs







Ancient Egyptian civilization and Pharaohs
Egypt was home to the oldest civilizations on earth, where it derived its name from the Greek word Egyptus. In 5500 BC there were two major kingdoms extending along the Nile River. Egyptian historians called them Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. In 3,200 BC the two kingdoms were united under one rule, Their affairs are King Narmer, who is called Menes.
King Minis established the capital of ancient Egypt known as Memphis, and its location in the north near the summit of the Nile Delta, and then developed into the largest city dominating the Egyptian society during that period.





History of Egypt The history of ancient Egypt is divided into six periods:
The Old Kingdom From 2613-2181 BC, architecture appeared and developed significantly. Egypt's most famous monuments such as the Pyramids and the Sphinx were built. The pyramid of Saqqara was built in 2670 BC in the reign of King Zoser. The three pyramids, Khufu, Khafra, And denote, to indicate the power and wealth of the mighty rulers in that period of time.
As for the first intermediate period in the period 2181-2040 BC, there was a decline in the strength and wealth of Egypt. Two major forces emerged: Heraconbolis in Lower Egypt and Taiba in Upper




Egypt. The two forces fought for supreme authority until 2040 BC, The second army of Herakonpolis was united and Egypt was united under good rule at the time.
The Middle Kingdom was established in the period 2040-1782 BC, and resulted from the prosperity that resulted from good rule to the beginning of the Middle Kingdom era. The era was called the Classical era. The fortunes reached its height and wealth. The fortresses were built to protect the Egyptian commercial interests there. , And Egypt remained prosperous until there were some internal problems that allowed the people of the Hyksos to invade, and grew his authority until he took control of part of Egypt.





The second intermediate period in 1782-1570 BC began with the rule of the Hyksos on Egypt. Although they were rapists of the land of Egypt and invaders of Egypt and its people, they added many improvements to the Egyptian culture such as the cart and horse, ceramics and bronze work. The Egyptians launched a number of campaigns to take out Haksos of Lower Egypt and returned under the rule of the good but they failed until Prince Ahmus I succeeded in regaining, and reunification under good rule.




The new Kingdom began in the period 1570-1069 BC after the unification of Egypt under the reign of good again, where the prosperity continued to progress, and in this period appeared the term Pharaoh, where the ruler was previously known as the King, and in the period 1504 to 1492 BC To reach Syria and Palestine to the west, and the Euphrates River to the north, Nubia in the south, and during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut trade expanded significantly with other countries.





Third intermediate period 1069-525 BC Ramses III ruled in 1186-1155 BC and followed the approach and policy of Ramses II in his reign. The wealth of Egypt was coveted by many peoples living on the coast, which led to its invasion several times. 1178 BC, which ended with the victory of Ramses III. After his death, his successors attempted to maintain his policy. However, they faced resistance from the peoples of the occupied territories. Over time, the priests of Amon took over a large part of Egyptian territory and gathered sufficient wealth to threaten the security of the central government. Q atheist ten central government collapsed and began the middle third period thereafter.







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