The Mariana Trench is the deepest point on Earth

Iron rust

Iron rust
The iron element of the transition metal group is symbolized by the symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and it occupies its position in the periodic table in the fourth cycle and in the eighth group precisely. The iron is more flexible than the aluminum element when it remains in its pure state. A certain percentage of carbon or elemental elements. The first quantity of steel was produced in the Iron Age and it was in eastern Sudan

Iron is an important element in human and animal life. It is the fourth largest element in the earth's crust and is one of the most widely used metal elements. It is a very stable element following the balance of electromagnetic force and strong nuclear force within the nucleus of the atom. Tools and supplies in human life such as ovens heaters and others.

the definition
Rust A red brownish material formed on the surface of iron or steel when exposed to wet air. When used alone it means iron rust which consists mainly of iron oxide. The rust of the air oxygen union is formed with iron in a process known as oxidation.
A thin layer of iron or steel rust can be removed by grinding, or with a polishing powder. Thick layers of rust require the use of the radiator to remove them, and acids are used to remove rust.

Conditions for iron rust:
Conditions for corrosion of the element include oxygen, water and electrolyte solution.
Rust process An electrochemical process occurs at the component's interface.
Iron rust occurs as a result of iron ionization in the water. Iron ions are then reduced. The electrons resulting from iron ionization in the water are then reduced to dissolved oxygen in water at the iron surface to hydroxyl ions. Iron ions are combined with hydroxyl ions. Iron hydroxide is formed. In the presence of oxygen and water iron hydroxide is oxidized to hydroxide Iron
Iron rust is formed from a mixture of iron hydroxide and iron hydroxide. It can therefore be said that iron resonance occurs if both conditions are met

the reasons
An indirect cause of rust is the bacteria in the soil, which converts salts and acids into sulfuric acid that attacks iron and causes rust. Concrete is eroded as a result of the chemical reaction between soluble sulphates and cement Cracked and fragmented parts.
It is known that alkaline concrete is working to put a layer around the reinforcing iron protects the iron from rust with a thick alkali layer prevents rust (negative protection layer). Rust occurs as a result of cracking the negative layer of protection that prevents the arrival of chloride salts and harmful salts on the concrete to the reinforcing iron and enter these salts to the body of concrete through external factors such as
Soil surrounding concrete

Wind loaded with dust containing salts
Spray water saturated with salts in buildings near the sea or materials that fall into the concrete mixture such as sand, gravel and water containing a high proportion of salts.
Iron can be protected from rust by isolating iron from any factors that may cause rust such as air and water. This can be done with appropriate coating or can be greased. The second method is followed by a method called cathodic protection. This method is by coating the iron with another element that is more oxidized than iron which makes it oxidized instead of iron, such as magnesium or molten zinc. This process is called iron galvanization. The surface of the outer zinc which is the carbon of the base zinc which is produced by the second oxidation of carbon and hence works to protect the layer of iron and prevent rust and also protects the zinc itself and prevent the penetration of rust in them. This method is widely used in water storage tanks and storage tanks in factories and houses and in the protection of doors and windows made of iron which makes them resistant to rust very large and for long periods